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Results

Results

Discovering findings and scientific outputs of the CORONADX project

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2021

Spike-specific circulating T follicular helper cell and cross-neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals

Scientific publications — 08 Sep 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that can be asymptomatic, mild, moderate or severe. In the early phase of infection, T- and B-cell counts are substantially decreased; however, IgM and IgG are detectable within 14 d after symptom onset. In COVID-19-convalescent individuals, spike-specific neutralizing antibodies are variable. No specific drug or vaccine is available for COVID-19 at the time of writing; however, patients benefit from treatment with serum from COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Nevertheless, antibody responses and cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals are largely unknown. Here, we show that the majority of COVID-19-convalescent individuals maintained SARS-CoV-2 spike S1- and S2-specific antibodies with neutralizing activity against the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, and that some of the antibodies cross-neutralized SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or both pseudotyped viruses.

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2020

High seroprevalence of SARS_COV-2 in Bergamo: evidence for herd immunity or reason to be cautious?

Scientific publications — 20 Nov 2020

We report 42% Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies’ seroprevalence in one province of Northern Italy and its effect on the second wave. This is one the highest level recorded so far in European seroprevalence studies. We believe this needs to be carefully considered in the context of the current scientific debate about the herd immunity approach to control the COVID-19 outbreak. Italian public health and political authorities have never considered herd immunity to be the solution to counteract the COVID-19 epidemic; however, some recent epidemiological data show how this indirect form of protection might begin to have some relevant effects on the progress of the pandemic in Northern Italian Regions.

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COVID-19 in Italy: impact of containment measures and prevalence estimates of infection in the general population

Scientific publications — 27 Oct 2020

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, the Italian Government implemented sev- eral restrictive measures to contain the spread of the infection. Data shows that, among these measures, the lock- down implemented as of 9 March had a positive impact, in particular the central and southern regions of Italy, while other actions appeared to be less effective. When the true prevalence of a disease is unknown, it is possible estimate it, based on mortality data and the assumptive case-fatality rate of the disease. Given these assumptions, the estimated period-prevalence of COVID-19 in Italy varies from 0.35% in Sicily to 13.3% in Lombardy. 

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Vaccine hesitancy in COVID-19 times. An update from Italy before flu season starts

Scientific publications — 29 Sep 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic and response caused a worrying decline in vaccine uptake around the world. In Italy, the immunization coverage targets set in the 2017-19 National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV) have been met only partially. The current public health emergency is likely to have negatively impacted on immunization , with the risk of re-occurrence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPDs) outbreaks. As flu season approaches, both National Health Institutions and the scientific community in Italy have taken action. Well in advance as compared to previous years, the Ministry of Health released the Circular to launch the 2020-2021 influenza immunization campaign which this year is longer (starting on October 2020) and extends flu vaccine recommendations to more “at risk” subgroups, offered the vaccine free of charge. In addition, some Italian Regions have recently tried to make flu vaccination compulsory for all Healthcare Workers (HCWs). Since 2017, when the law on childhood vaccination in Italy was passed, compulsory vaccination has proved to be a successful strategy towards coverage increase. 

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Age-specific COVID-19 case-fatality rate: no evidence of changes over time

Scientific publications — 25 Sep 2020

More than 5 months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic, and almost 900,000 deaths around the world, we are still far from fully understanding COVID-19 epidemiology and natural history. As we fear the consequences of second epidemic waves, it is not clear why the clinical burden of COVID-19 has decreased. Experts claim this to be possibly related to infection transmission in younger age groups, as compared to the past (current average age of COVID-19 cases in Italy is 31 years versus 70 years in the first 2 months of the outbreak), to decreased disease severity or to better therapeutic approaches.
National-level COVID-19 surveillance system data from Italy are to be explored to better understand age-specific COVID-19 case-fatality rate over time.

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Vaccine hesitancy in COVID-19 times. An update from Italy before flu season starts

Scientific publications — 08 Sep 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic and response caused a worrying decline in vaccine uptake around the world. In Italy, the immunization coverage targets set in the 2017-19 National Immunization Prevention Plan (PNPV) have been met only partially. The current public health emergency is likely to have negatively impacted on immunization , with the risk of re-occurrence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPDs) outbreaks. As flu season approaches, both National Health Institutions  and the scientific community in Italy have taken action.

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Point-of-care devices for pathogen detections: The three most important factors to realise towards commercialization

Scientific publications — 27 Aug 2020

The development of lab-on-a-chip technology and its applications in biochemical and biomedical analyses has, during the last two decades, led to the potential realisation of portable and on-site detection devices, the so-called point-of-care (PoC) detection systems. These are essentially cheap, easy-to-handle systems, offering rapid sample-to-answer results to non-technical operators. In this perspective, we do not review all the current advances of Lab-on-a-chip techniques for the realisation of PoC. Instead, we aim to provide insight into what we foresee as the three most important factors to play the essential roles for succeeding in making commercially viable PoC pathogen-detection devices. The three insights are namely: the utilizations of (i) disposable polymer (microfluidic) chips, (ii) the implementation of surface-bound (or solid-phase) nucleic-acid amplification techniques and (iii) relying (more) on open-source hardware and software.

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The spread of COVID-19 in six western metropolitan regions

Scientific publications — 12 Apr 2020

Analysis of the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in 6 metropolitan regions with similar demographic characteristics, daytime commuting population and business activities: the New York metropolitan area, the Île-de-France region, the Greater London county, Bruxelles-Capital, the Community of Madrid and the Lombardy region. The highest mortality rates 30-days after the onset of the epidemic were recorded in New York (81.2 x 100,000) and Madrid (77.1 x 100,000). Lombardy mortality rate is below average (41.4 per 100,000), and it is the only situation in which the capital of the region (Milan) has not been heavily impacted by the epidemic wave. The study analyzed the role played by containment measures and the positive contribution offered by the hospital care system.

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2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Paving the Road for Rapid Detection and Point-of-Care Diagnostics

Scientific publications — 14 Mar 2020

We believe a point-of-care (PoC) device for the rapid detection of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial and urgently needed. With this perspective, we give suggestions regarding a potential candidate for the rapid detection of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as factors for the preparedness and response to the outbreak of the COVID-19.

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